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210                                      &INOC&RAS                                     CH/
probably resembled the bears more than any living animals, wil
the important exception that in their feet they were much like tl
elephant. To the general proportions of the bears must be add*
the tail of medium length. Whether they were covered with ha
or not is of course uncertain. Of their nearest living allies, tl
elephants, some were hairy and others naked. . . . The movemen
of the Goryphodons doubtless resembled those of the elephant in ii
shuffling and ambling gait, and may have been even more awkwai
from the inflexibility of the ankle."
The most  recent  members  of this  sub-order come from  th
Middle Eocene beds, and are chiefly referable to the genus Dine
ceras, with which Tinoceras and  ITintatheriu'm, are  at least ver
nearly related, if not identical.   These creatures were of great six*
larger than the earlier types which have been considered.     The
show a certain superficial resemblance to the Titanotheriiclae, o
account of the massive horn cores upon the  skull.     These hor]
cores are large  upon  the  maxillae  and   the  parietals,  and  ar
paired;   on   the   nasals  are  smaller horns.     The   bones  of  th
skull   have   air   cavities.      The   incisors   of   the   upper  jaw   ar
absent;   the  canines  are  enormous  tusks,   and  the   lower  jaw
are flanged downwards  near the  symphysis where  these  tusk
border them.     Contrary  to  what is found  in  the  older types
where the position of the condyle  of the lower jaw is normal
this prominence faces backwards in the Dinocerata.     The sam<
shortness  of the  spines  of the dorsal vertebrae prevails in thii
group  as in the  other Amblypoda, though it is perhaps hardly
so  marked.     The scapula has not the peculiar acuminate forii
that exists  in Coryphodon>  but is  triangular and broad  above
The   limbs   are   elephantine,   in   that   the   angle   between   th(
humerus   and   the   femur   respectively,   and   the   bones   whicl
follow, is  not marked.     The hind-limbs  are especially straight
The   tail   is   short   as   compared   with   that   of  the   primitive
Amblypoda.       The   Dinocerata   are   purely   digitigrade.       Th(
entepicondylar foramen has, as in the Goryphodonts, disappeared
The os centrale of the carpus has become  fused, and no  longei
exists   as   a   separate   bone.     The   fibula   no   longer   articulates
with the calcaneum, but both that bone and the ulna are wel
developed.     The   genus   Astrcvpotheriwm   is   placed   among   th*
Amblypoda by some authorities.1
A Gla&sijication of Ferfc&ra&t, Recent and JBbstinct, London, 1808,